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Charles Forceville
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Charles Forceville
Universiteit van Amsterdam, Dept of Media Studies,Turfdraagsterpad 9
1012 XT
Amsterdam, NL


Universiteit van Amsterdam
** (1996). Pictorial metaphor in advertising, London/New York: Routledge (ISBN 0-415-12868-4, 233 pp).
** (2009). Multimodal Metaphor, with Eduardo Urios-Aparisi (eds.). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
**(2013), with Tony Veale and Kurt Feyaerts, eds, Creativity and the Agile Mind: A Multi-disciplinary Exploration of a Multi-Faceted Phenomenon. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

** (2004-2013)."Introduction" + 8/8 Lectures of online Course in Pictorial and Multimodal Metaphor at (completed Autumn 2013).

Tseronis, Assimakis, and Charles Forceville, eds (2017). Multimodal Argumentation and Rhetoric in Media Genres. Amsterdam: Benjamins (ix, 301 pp). ISBN 9789027211316. DOI: 10.1075/aic.14[1] For a summary, see

ARTICLES & CHAPTERS (selection) NB for pre- or post-prints of many of these, access my or profiles

Forceville, Charles (2019). “Reflections on the creative use of traffic signs’ ‘micro-language.’” In: András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri (eds.), Image and Metaphor in the New Century (Perspectives on Visual Learning vol. 3) (103-113). Budapest University of Technology and Economics: Hungarian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-963-313-307-1

Forceville, Charles, and Nataša van de Laar (2019). “Metaphors portraying right-wing politician Geert Wilders in Dutch political cartoons.” In: Encarnación Hidalgo-Tenorio, Miguel Ángel Benítez-Castro, and Francesca De Cesare (eds), Populist Discourse: Critical Approaches to Contemporary Politics (292-307). London: Routledge.

Forceville, Charles, and Sissy Paling. “The metaphorical representation of DEPRESSION in short, wordless animation films.” Journal of Visual Communication (“ahead of print” open access version available since 21-9-2018: – via open access). For a summary, see

Forceville, Charles, and Jens E. Kjeldsen (2018). “The affordances and constraints of situation and genre: visual and multimodal rhetoric in unusual traffic signs.” Pragmatic insights for multimodal argumentation issue of International Review of Pragmatics 10(2): 158-178 (guest editors: Assimakis Tseronis & Chiara Pollaroli). doi: 10.1163/18773109-01002002. For a summary, see

Tseronis, Assimakis, and Charles Forceville (2017). “The argumentative relevance of visual and multimodal antithesis in Frederick Wiseman’s documentaries.” In: Tseronis and Forceville (eds), Multimodal Argumentation and Rhetoric in Media Genres. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 165-188. For a summary, see

Tseronis, Assimakis, and Charles Forceville (2017). “Arguing against corporate claims visually and multimodally: The case of subvertisements.” Multimodal Communication 6(2): 143-157. DOI: 10.1515/mc-2017-0008.

Stamenković, Dušan, Miloš Tasić, and Charles Forceville (2018). “Facial expressions in comics: An empirical consideration of McCloud’s proposal.” Journal of Visual Communication 17(4): 407–432. Online via Open Access since 9-7-18: For a summary, see

Forceville, Charles. “Multimodality, film, and cinematic metaphor: an evaluation of Müller and Kappelhoff (2018).” Punctum: International Journal of Semiotics (Greece) 4(2): 90-108. (DOI: 10.18680/hss.2018.0021)

Tseronis, Assimakis, and Charles Forceville (2017). “Introduction:  Argumentation and rhetoric in visual and multimodal communication.” In: Tseronis and Forceville (eds), Multimodal Argumentation and Rhetoric in Media Genres. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1-24.

Forceville, Charles (2017). “Interactive documentary and its limited opportunities to persuade.” Discourse, Context & Media 20: 218-226 (guest editors of special issue “Media Evolution and Genre Expectations”: Tuomo Hiippala & Chiao-I Tseng).

Cornevin, Vanessa, and Charles Forceville (2017). “From metaphor to allegory: the Japanese manga Afuganisu-tan.” Metaphor and the Social World 7(2): 235-251. DOI: 10.1075/msw.7.2.04cor For a summary, see

Forceville, Charles (2017). “From image schema to metaphor in discourse: The FORCE schemas in animation films.” In: Beate Hampe (ed.), Metaphor: Embodied Cognition and Discourse (239-256). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781107198333. doi: 10.1017/1108182324. For a summary, see

Forceville, Charles (2017). “Visual and multimodal metaphor in advertising: cultural perspectives.” Styles of Communication 9(2): 26-41. (

Forceville, Charles (2016). “Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Blending Theory, and other cognitivist perspectives on comics.” In: Neil Cohn (ed.), The Visual Narrative Reader (89-114). London: Bloomsbury. (ISBN: 9781472585592).

Forceville, Charles (2016). “Visual and multimodal metaphor in film: charting the field.” In: Kathrin Fahlenbrach (ed.), Embodied Metaphors in Film, Television and Video Games: Cognitive Approaches (17-32). London: Routledge.

Forceville, Charles (2016). “Mixing in pictorial and multimodal metaphors?” In: Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. (ed.), Mixing Metaphor (223-239). Amsterdam: Benjamins (ISBN 9789027202109). doi 10.1075/milcc.6.11for.

Forceville, Charles. “Pictorial and multimodal metaphor.” In: Nina-Maria Klug and Hartmut Stöckl (eds), Handbuch Sprache im multimodalen Kontext [The Language in Multimodal Contexts Handbook] (241-260). Linguistic Knowledge series. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Forceville, Charles (2016). “The FORCE and BALANCE schemas in JOURNEY metaphor animations.” In: Carla Fernandes (ed.), Multimodality and Performance (8-22). Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.

Forceville, Charles (2015). “Interpreting The Chinese Wall knowing Dutch and ‘Dutchness.’” Short Film Studies 5(1): 107-110.

Tseronis, Assimakis, Charles Forceville, and Melle Grannetia (2015). “The argumentative role of visual metaphor and visual antithesis in ‘fly-on-the-wall’ documentary.” In: Bart Garssen, David Godden, Gordon Mitchell, and Francisca Snoeck Henkemans (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Argumentation, Amsterdam: SicSat, CD-Rom pp. 1380-1395; also accessible at

Forceville, Charles (2015). “Metaphor and symbol: SEARCHING FOR ONE’S IDENTITY IS LOOKING FOR A HOME in animation film.” In: María Jesús Pinar Sanz (ed.), Multimodality and Cognitive Linguistics (27-44). Amsterdam: Benjamins [Reprint of Forceville 2013]

[1] Reviews: (1) Francesca Ervas & Elisabetta Gola (2018). International Review of Pragmatics 10: 309-320; (2) Natalie Amgott (2018). Linguist List (16-10-18) –

** (2014). ChF, Elisabeth El Refaie, and Gert Meesters. “Stylistics and comics.” In: Michael Burke (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Stylistics (485-499). London: Routledge.

** (2013). ChF and Thijs Renckens (2013). “The GOOD IS LIGHT and BAD IS DARKNESS metaphors in feature films.” Metaphor and the Social World 3(2): 160-179 (guest editors: Laura Hidalgo & Blanca Kraljevic).

** (2013). “Metaphor and symbol: SEARCHING FOR ONE’S IDENTITY IS LOOKING FOR A HOME in animation film.” In: Maria Jesús Pinár (ed), “Multimodality and Cognitive Linguistics” issue of Review of Cognitive Linguistics 11(2): 250-268.

**(2013). “The strategic use of the visual mode in advertising metaphors.” In: Emilia Djonov and Sumin Zhao (eds), Critical Multimodal Studies of Popular Culture (55-70). New York: Routledge.

** (2013). Kromhout, Roelf, and ChF. “LIFE IS A JOURNEY: the source-path-goal schema in the videogames Half-Life, Heavy Rain, and Grim Fandango.” Metaphor and the Social World 3(1): 100-116.

** (2013). Veale, Tony, Kurt Feyaerts, and Charles Forceville. “Creativity and the agile mind.” In: Veale, Feyaerts, and Forceville (eds), 15-36.

** (2013). Veale, Tony, Kurt Feyaerts, and Charles Forceville (2013). “E Unis Pluribum: Using mental agility to achieve creative duality in word, image and sound.” In: Veale, Feyaerts, and Forceville (eds), 37-57.

** (2013). “Creative visual duality in comics balloons.” In: Veale, Feyaerts, and  Forceville (eds), 253-273

** (2012). "Creativity in pictorial and multimodal advertising metaphors." In: Rodney Jones (ed.), Discourse and Creativity. Harlow: Pearson/Longman 113-132.

**(2011) ChF and Marloes Jeulink. “The flesh and blood of embodied understanding: The source-path-goal schema in animation film." Pragmatics & Cognition 19(1): 37-59.

** (2011). "The journey metaphor and the Source-Path-Goal schema in Agnès Varda's autobiographical gleaning documentaries." In: Monika Fludernik (ed.), Beyond Cognitive Metaphor Theory: Perspectives on Literary Metaphor. London: Routledge, 281-297.

** (2011). Abbott, Michael, and ChF. "Visual representations of emotion in manga: loss of control is loss of hands in Azumanga Daioh volume 4." Language and Literature 20(2): 91-112.

** (2011) Bounegru, Liliana, and ChF. "Metaphors in editorial cartoons (October 2008) representing the global financial crisis." Journal of Visual Communication 10(2): 209-229.

** (2011). “Pictorial runes in Tintin and the Picaros.” Journal of Pragmatics 43: 875-890.

** (2011). “Practical cues for helping develop image and multimodal discourse scholarship.” In: Klaus Sachs-Hombach and Rainer Totzke (eds), Bilder, Sehen, Denken. Cologne: Von Halem, 33-51.

** (2010). ChF, Tony Veale, and Kurt Feyaerts. "Balloonics: The visuals of balloons in comics." In: Joyce Goggins & Dan Hassler-Forest (eds.), The Rise and Reason of Comics and Graphic Literature: Critical Essays on the Form. Jefferson NC: McFarland, 56-73.

**(2010). Van Mulken, Margot, Rob le Pair, and ChF. “The impact of complexity on the appreciation of visual metaphor in advertising across three European countries.” Journal of Pragmatics 42: 3418-3430.

** (2009). "Relevanz und Prägnanz: Kunst als Kommunikation." Tr. by Martina Plümacher. Zeitschrift für Semiotik 31(1-2): 31-63.

** (2009). Eggertsson, Gunnar, and ChF. "The human victims are animals metaphor in horror movies." In: Forceville & Urios-Aparisi (eds).

** (2009). "Metonymy in visual and audiovisual discourse." In: Eija Ventola and Jésus Moya (eds), The World Told and the World Shown: Issues in Multisemiotics. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 56-74.

** (2008). "Metaphor in pictures and multimodal representations." In: Raymond W. Gibbs Jr.(ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought, 462-82. Cambridge UP.

** (2008). "Pictorial and multimodal metaphor in commercials." In: Edward F. McQuarrie & Barbara J. Phillips (eds), Go Figure! New Directions in Advertising Rhetoric, 272-310. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.

**(2008). "Bumper stories: the framing of commercial blocks on Dutch public television." In: Jaap Kooijman, Patricia Pisters, and Wanda Strauven (eds), Mind the Screen: Media Concepts According to Thomas Elsaesser, 229-241. Amsterdam University Press.

** (2007). "Multimodal metaphor in ten Dutch TV commercials." The Public Journal of Semiotics 1:1,19-51.

** (2006). "The source-path-goal schema in the autobiographical journey documentary: McElwee, Van der Keuken, Cole." New Review of Film and Television 4: 241-61.

** (2006). "Non-verbal and multimodal metaphor in a cognitivist framework: Agendas for research." In: Gitte Kristiansen, Michel Achard, René Dirven and Francisco Ruiz de Mendoza (eds.), Cognitive Linguistics: Current Applications and Future Perspectives, 379-402. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

** (2006). ChF, Paul Hekkert, and Ed Tan. "The adaptive value of metaphors." In: Uta Klein, Katja Mellmann, Steffanie Metzger (eds.): Heuristiken der Literaturwissenschaft. Einladung zu disziplinexternen Perspektiven auf Literatur, 85-109. Paderborn: Mentis.

** (2005). "Addressing an audience: time, place, and genre in Peter Van Straaten’s calendar cartoons." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 18, 247-78.

** (2005). "Cognitive linguistics and multimodal metaphor." In: Klaus Sachs-Hombach (ed.), Bildwissenschaft: Zwischen Reflektion und Anwendung, 264-84. Cologne: Von Halem.

** (2005). "Visual representations of the Idealized Cognitive Model of anger in the Asterix album La Zizanie." Journal of Pragmatics 37, 69-88.

** (2003). "Bildliche und multimodale Metaphern in Werbespots" [Translated from English by Dagmar Schmauks] Zeitschrift für Semiotik 25, 39-60.

** (2002). "The identification of target and source in pictorial metaphors." Journal of Pragmatics 34, 1-14.

** (2002). "The conspiracy in The comfort of strangers -- narration in the novel and the film," Language and Literature 11, 131-47.

** (1999). "Compasses, beauty queens and other PCs: pictorial metaphors in computer advertisements," Hermes, Journal of Linguistics 24, 31-55.

** (1999). "Educating the eye? Kress and Van Leeuwen's Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design (1996)." [Review article.] Language and Literature 8, 163-78.

** (1999). "The metaphor COLIN IS A CHILD in Ian McEwan's, Harold Pinter's, and Paul Schrader's The Comfort of Strangers." Metaphor and Symbol 14, 179-98.

(1995). ** "Art or ad?: the influence of genre-attribution on the interpretation of images," SPIEL (Siegener Periodicum zur Internationalen Empirischen Literaturwissenschaft] 18, 279-300.

** (1995). "IBM IS A TUNING FORK: degrees of freedom in the interpretation of pictorial metaphors." Poetics 23, 189-218.

** (1994). "(A)symmetry in metaphor: the importance of extended context." Poetics Today 16, 677-708.

** (1994). "Pictorial metaphor in advertisements." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 9, 1-29.

** (1994). "Pictorial metaphor in billboards: relevance theory perspectives." In: Jürgen E. Müller (ed.), Towards a Pragmatics of the Audiovisual vol. 1, 93-113. Münster: Nodus.
Multimodal metaphor;
Multimodal discourse;
Documentary film;
Relevance theory;
Picture theory;
Multimodal rhetoric;
Comics & Cartoons; 
Animation film;
Narratology & Narrative across media.