Bild-Stil: Strukturierung der Bildinformation (Themenheft zu IMAGE 3) 



  • Martina Plümacher & Klaus Sachs-Hombach: Einleitung

  • Nina Bishara: Bilderrätsel in der Werbung

  • Sascha Demarmels: Funktion des Bildstils von politischen
    Plakaten. Eine historische Analyse am Beispiel von Abstimmungsplakaten

  • Dagmar Schmauks: Ringelschwanz und rosa Rüssel. Stilisierungen des Schweins in Werbung und Cartoon

  • Beatrice Nunold: Landschaft als Immersionsraum und Sakralisierung als Stilmerkmal

  • Klaus Sachs-Hombach und Jörg R. J. Schirra: Bildstil als rhetorische Kategorie


Autoren: Martina Plümacher, Klaus Sachs-Hombach
[Thema des Artikels]

Bilderrätsel in der Werbung
Autor: Nina Bishara
Both style and riddles share elements of surprise and deviation from expectancies. Pictorial riddles in advertising are especially suitable to show how pictures are processed and by which features they are interpreted. The analysis of five advertisements including opaque visual messages will differentiate stylistic devices relevant for the interpretation of the advertising message and the identification of the advertised product. Within the framework of Charles S. Peirce’s semiotics, this paper will argue that pictorial riddles in advertising are initially incomplete signs as their object at first is not established and their interpretant remains open.

Funktion des Bildstils von politischen Plakaten. Eine historische Analyse am Beispiel von Abstimmungsplakaten
Autor: Sascha Demarmels
The style of an image helps to organize the information contained in the image and depends, among other things, on the image structure. To uncover the image structure of vote posters, the basic patterns of the text have to be identified. Applying the results from the research in advertising, the text patterns located in advertisments can be modified and transferred to political posters. Comparing posters from several countries shows that the style of the image may vary depending on cultures and traditions. Moreover, a change dependent on technical developments is recognizable. Another important aspect of the style of the image is the significance of colours, which are used to influence the recipient. The style of the image of (political) advertisment posters does not only contain a persuasive (mostly emotionalizing) function. The ›social‹ function for instance is also a relevant factor. This function is enabled by arranging recipients into certain groups, which can be achieved through visualization. Symbols of identity are another recurring factor, like the Swiss emblem (the white cross on red ground) on vote posters from Switzerland. Regarding this symbol, a shift in the style of the image can be detected during the time period investigated (1848-2005). This shift is accompanied by political change. Up until the 1970s the Swiss Cross can only be found in its ›natural‹ form, white cross on red ground, conveying patriotism and demanding the cohesion of the confederation. In the 1970s, with increased influence of leftist parties, a new variation is added: by changing the colours and through ironic alterations of the Swiss Cross, conservative approaches are abandoned. A further variation occurs in the 1990s: The Swiss Cross serves again as a symbol of unity. The communicators now attempt to unite the German and French speaking parts of Switzerland, because the political majorities in those two parts start to drift apart.

Ringelschwanz und rosa Rüssel. Stilisierungen des Schweins in Werbung und Cartoon
Autor: Dagmar Schmauks
Pigs are a popular motif of many pictorial genres from butcher’s signs to greetings cards. This article analyzes pictures of pigs in advertising and cartoons. The guiding question is, which features are attributed to the pig and how they mirror zoological reality. The introductory section 2 presents ambivalent common sayings between the extremes „Drecksau“ („dirty pig“) and „Glücksschwein („lucky pig“). Section 3 investigates pictorial representations of pigs, mainly typical stylizations of body parts and the emphasizing of differences between domestic pigs and wild boars. Detailed analyses of current advertisements (section 4) and current cartoons (section 5) show that some topics are presented frequently and in a highly stereotypical manner.

Landschaft als Immersionsraum und Sakralisierung der Landschaft
Autor: Beatrice Nunold
All Media are immersion media. They require a permanent focus of attention and fade out the reality. A total immersion will be constructed. Since the invention of panorama at the eighteen century the landscape becomes an experimental object as an illusions or immersion space. One famous representative is the Artist Caspar David Friedrich. At the early Romantics the subject of stage is a distinguish object of reflection. The possibility of illusion will be referring to subject. The sacralisation of landscape we found completely pronounced and reflecting of highest level. – At the succession the sacralisation turn to a stylistic way of landscape. The sty-listic way becomes intentional manipulative use, so at the film „The Lord of the Rings“, to at-tract the viewer in an optical, emotional and mental kind into the immersion space.

Darstellungsstil als bild-rhetorische Kategorie. Einige Vorüberlegungen
Autoren: Klaus Sachs-Hombach, Jörg R. J. Schirra
If we consider pictures (or at least sets of pictures) as symbol systems, it seems reasonable to describe them (analogue to the speech act theory) as imbedded in the broader context of sign acts. They would consequently have an illocutionary role and could serve, for example, to warn against something, to inform about something, or to ask someone to do something. But since pictures are characterized by several particularities, an easy transfer of linguistic categories is problematic. Even if we are justified to describe many applications of pictures as forms of communicative actions, it should be examined in detail to what extent we have to modify the categories of the speech act theory while applying them to pictures. This will be pursued in the following article concerning the relation between pictorial style and functions of pictures.