The goal of this paper is to systematize the variety of philosophical arguments as to whether mental images relate, and to link them to appropriate psychological research against the background of the imagery debate. The following subdivision is proposed: (1) copy, (2) similarity and schema, (3) language-based and (4) functionalist approaches. These are presented by typical representatives and their stance. The problematic subjects resulting from these philosophical argumentations are summarized and contrasted to previous psychological studies. The corresponding desiderata are discussed.
The following article focuses on the problem of image in the image, in the sense of intermediality, transmediality and remediation and researches the status of the repeated image. Image-repeating is a raising to power of the image. I would like to carry out an analysis, categorizing the repeated image (Wiederbild).
Even more than any interpretation of everyday ›reality‹ it is the contemplation of another culture that is subject to both the respective beholder's complex and comprehensive intellectual precondition. Mental images of another culture consist of transpositions and projections of mostly unconscious or un-questioned points of view and ways of perceiving of the external beholder's culture of origin onto differently conditioned circumstances and phenomena – furnished with meaning derived from a hardly perceivable cultural setting which in addition is possibly founded or legitimated in an incomprehensible way. The specific preconception structure is a fundamental cognitive handicap when contemplating other cultures while at the same time images of the other – regarded upon as disguised images of the self – dispose of a certain potential as means of (self-)knowledge. Using the example of the most influential serial in the field of civic ed-ucation in Germany – more precisely, those seven issues dealing with China exclusively (published 1961-2005) – this article is aimed at five core issues as raised by Intercultural Hermeneutics. The particular findings as displayed suggest in fact that even an adept beholder is likely to rather recognize her/his very own cultural subjectivity (respectively the one by the bearer of an intellectual image) than finding out about the other culture beyond its surface forms of appearance.
At first video games incorporated the death of the avatar only to earn money, as you had to buy ›new lives‹ whenever your avatar died. There was no narrative function to this concept. Because of that the death of the avatar was no element of the game, but merely a way to hinder the progress of the player. Nowadays arcades have been made nearly obsolete by consoles and PC, so there is no necessity to use the death of the avatar to earn money as the arcades did. This creates great opportunities for game developers to find new ways to deal with the death of the avatar. There are still games with a death-counter, but they are the minority. It's more common to integrate the death either as a ludic or narrative feature of the game. What is missing are ways to combine the narrative and ludic functions of the death of the avatar even though that would be the next logical step. The so called ›videogame death‹ could give games a clear distinction to other genres of media and would also emphasize the interactivity that is special to videogames.